A group of US researchers has created what they say are the first-ever living robots, which were made of frog embryos’ cells and can be programmed for a specific job, according to their study published by the US journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Joshua Bongard, the University of Vermont expert who co-led the new research, described the robots as “the novel living machines”, also known as “xenobots”.

The “xenobots” created by the researchers are sub-millimetre-sized blobs containing between 500 and 1,000 cells that are able to scoot across a Petri dish, self-organise, and even transport minute payloads.



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