The US bill imposing mandatory sanctions on Chinese individuals and entities who “materially contribute to the contravention of China’s obligations” to Hong Kong’s autonomy – and banks that do “significant transactions” with them – was passed unanimously by the Senate on Thursday, with the House of Representatives working on its own version; the final bill gets passed to President Trump, who either signs it or vetoes it – in which case it has a veto-proof majority anyway.

This, as Rabobank’s Michael Every wrote, is the constitutional dynamic that has been described several times in the last 12 months for China-focused bills with serious consequences for not just international relations, but international business and finance.

“So far the results have not hit markets: but this bill cuts out the middleman and takes us straight to the biting sanctions”, Every concluded.

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