1 A secondary analysis of the VITAL study found patients with no prior history of cancer who took 2,000 IUs of vitamin D per day reduced their risk for which of the following diseases by 17% (and 38% if of healthy weight)?
A secondary analysis of the VITAL study found patients with no prior history of cancer who took 2,000 IUs of vitamin D per day reduced their risk for metastatic cancer and death by 17%. The risk was reduced by as much as 38% among those who also maintained a healthy weight. Learn more.
- Heart disease
2 The “effectiveness” of COVID-19 vaccines refer to:
- The ability to prevent COVID-19-related hospitalizations
- The ability to reduce symptoms of COVID-19, regardless of severity
None of the COVID-19 trials for which we have data is designed to find out whether the vaccine reduces hospitalization rates or deaths. They only look at whether it reduces symptoms if you do get infected. Learn more.
- The ability to prevent COVID-19 related death
- None of the above
3 Which of the following pandemic measures have been proven to prevent infection and lower mortality?
- Universal mask wearing
- Social distancing
- Extensive PCR testing of asymptomatic people
- None of the above
PCR tests cannot diagnose infection and therefore cannot tell us anything about the prevalence of infection. There’s also no evidence to suggest that social distancing and universal mask wearing prevent infection or lower mortality. Learn more.
4 Which of the following failed vaccination programs has been cited as the origin of the anti-vaccine movement?
- The 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine flu vaccination program
- The 2005 bird flu vaccination program
- The 1976 pandemic swine flu vaccination program
The 1976 swine flu vaccine program has been cited as the origin of the anti-vaccine movement. Fear of an impending swine flu pandemic led to the deployment of a fast-tracked vaccine that injured thousands and killed at least 300. Learn more.
- The 1977 Russian flu vaccine program
5 Research has confirmed there’s an inverse relationship between which of the following?
- Sun exposure (vitamin D) and seasonal influenza deaths
A scientific review published in 2006 concluded that epidemic seasonal influenza is most likely related to the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency during winter months. Since then, other studies have confirmed this theory. A 2010 study found there’s an inverse relationship between UVB sun exposure — which is how your body synthesizes vitamin D naturally — and influenza deaths. Learn more.
- Cold weather and hospitalization for the common cold
- Hotter temperatures and COVID-19 cases requiring intensive care
- Sun avoidance and MERS deaths
6 At extremely high doses, vitamin C:
- Should be avoided in all cases
- Kills viruses by acting like an antiviral drug
Vitamin C at extremely high doses, however, acts as an antiviral drug, actually killing viruses. Learn more.
- Is too expensive to use clinically
- Can turn your hair color grey
7 At a molecular level, high linoleic acid (omega-6) consumption:
- Improves gut health
- Preferentially kills neurons
- Damages metabolism and impedes your body’s ability to generate energy in your mitochondria
At a molecular level, excess linoleic acid consumption damages your metabolism and impedes your body’s ability to generate energy in your mitochondria. Learn more.
- Improves metabolic function and energy production